6 Causes of Infertility/Fertilization Failure in Dogs

Infertility/Fertilization failure in dogs is a rising concern amongst dog owners and breeders, this article will analyze the most typical causes and possible solutions (if there are)

1.Improper breeding time (Mismating)

This happens when a female dog is bred at a time that is not optimal for conception.This can occur due to a variety of reasons, including incorrect timing of ovulation, incorrect timing of mating, or the use of inadequate breeding methods. To ascertain the correct breeding time, it is often advised to do a Progesterone assay or vaginal cytology.

2.Absence of Estrus Cycle

The estrus cycle, also known as the heat cycle, is the reproductive cycle in female dogs during which they become sexually receptive and can become pregnant. If a female dog is not exhibiting any signs of estrus, it could indicate a medical issue or a hormonal imbalance.

If a female dog is not going through estrus cycles, it is important to consult with a veterinarian to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment.

3.Irregular Ovulation

There are several reasons why a dog may experience irregular ovulation. One common cause is age. As dogs get older, their fertility may decline, and irregular ovulation may become more common. Hormonal imbalances, such as thyroid disorders or conditions that affect the pituitary gland, can also lead to irregular ovulation in dogs.

In addition, certain medications or environmental factors, such as stress, can also disrupt the normal ovulation process in dogs.

4. Brucellosis (Bacteria Infection)

 Brucella bacteria can infect a dog’s reproductive system, leading to inflammation and damage to the reproductive organs, which can make it difficult or impossible for them to breed or produce viable offspring.

Brucellosis is highly contagious between dogs and can be transmitted through sexual contact, contact with aborted fetuses, and even through contaminated environments. It is important to test breeding dogs for brucellosis before breeding to prevent the spread of the infection.

Treatment for brucellosis in dogs is challenging, as the infection is difficult to completely eliminate.


5.Uterine infection

A uterine infection, also known as endometritis, is an inflammation of the inner lining of the uterus. This inflammation can cause scarring and damage to the uterine lining, which can make it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant in the uterus and develop into a pregnancy.

Uterine infections can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial infections, sexually transmitted infections, and medical procedures such as a D&C (dilation and curettage) or abortion. Symptoms of a uterine infection may include fever, abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal discharge, and irregular menstrual bleeding.

6.Thyroid Gland Insufficiency (Hypothyroidism)

The thyroid gland produces hormones that are necessary for proper metabolic function, growth, and reproduction. When the thyroid gland does not produce enough of these hormones, it can lead to a variety of health problems, including infertility,

Hypothyroidism can cause a range of reproductive problems in dogs, including decreased libido, irregular estrus cycles, and reduced fertility. In male dogs, hypothyroidism can lead to decreased semen quality, reduced sperm count, and impaired sperm motility. In female dogs, it can cause irregular estrus cycles, failure to ovulate, and impaired pregnancy.


Conclusively, when you suspect fertilization failure in your dog/Infertility, it is important to consult with a veterinarian who can conduct a thorough examination and suggest appropriate treatment options. In some cases, artificial insemination or other reproductive technologies may be required to help ensure successful fertilization.

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